For more regular structures: Normalising
Normalising is usually carried out after components have undergone hot forming. Using normalising, it is possible to attain a fine-grained Ferrit/Perlit microstructure. It transforms coarse-grained and irregular microstructures into new, homogeneous and fine structures. The goal is to increase the toughness of the material – and the cold toughness in particular. After undergoing the process of normalising, steel is easy to machine but still harder than soft annealed steel. The annealing temperatures for this depend on the material being treated but are close to those of the corresponding hardening temperature. Normalising is often called regenerative annealing or structural grain refining because it is used to reduce grain size and its spread width.